W.1: Text Types and Purposes

Anchor StandardCCRA.W.1 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
11th-12th Grades"W.11-12.1 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. a) Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. b) Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases. c) Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims. d) Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. e) Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented."
9th-10th Grades"W.9-10.1 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. a) Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. b) Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns. c) Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims. d) Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. e) Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented."
8th Grade"W.8.1 Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. a) Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically. b) Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. c) Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. d) Establish and maintain a formal style. e) Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented."
7th Grade"W.7.1 Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. a) Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically. b) Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. c) Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), reasons, and evidence. d) Establish and maintain a formal style. e) Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented."
6th Grade"W.6.1 Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. a) Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly. b) Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. c) Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons. d) Establish and maintain a formal style. e) Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented."
5th Grade"W.5.1 Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. a) Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose. b) Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details. c) Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., consequently, specifically). d) Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented."
4th Grade"W.4.1 Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. a) Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose. b) Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details. c) Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition). d) Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented."
3rd Grade"W.3.1 Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons. a) Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons. b) Provide reasons that support the opinion. c) Use linking words and phrases (e.g., because, therefore, since, for example) to connect opinion and reasons. d) Provide a concluding statement or section."
2nd GradeW.2.1 Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g.,because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.
1st GradeW.1.1 Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide some sense of closure.
KindergartenW.K.1 Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a reader the topic or the name of the book they are writing about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or book (e.g., My favorite book is...).
Anchor NotesTo build a foundation for college and career readiness, students need to learn to use writing as a way of offering and supporting opinions, demonstrating understanding of the subjects they are studying, and conveying real and imagined experiences and events. They learn to appreciate that a key purpose of writing is to communicate clearly to an external, sometimes unfamiliar audience, and they begin to adapt the form and content of their writing to accomplish a particular task and purpose. They develop the capacity to build knowledge on a subject through research projects and to respond analytically to literary and informational sources. To meet these goals, students must devote significant time and effort to writing, producing numerous pieces over short and extended time frames throughout the year.

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