L.3: Knowledge of Language

Anchor StandardCCRA.L.3 Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
11th-12th GradesL.11-12.3 Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening. a) Vary syntax for effect, consulting references (e.g., Tufte’s Artful Sentences) for guidance as needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading.
9th-10th GradesL.9-10.3 Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening. a) Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., MLA Handbook, Turabian’s Manual for Writers) appropriate for the discipline and writing type.
8th GradeL.8.3 Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. a) Use verbs in the active and passive voice and in the conditional and subjunctive mood to achieve particular effects (e.g., emphasizing the actor or the action; expressing uncertainty or describing a state contrary to fact).
7th GradeL.7.3 Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. a) Choose language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy.*
6th GradeL.6.3 Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. a) Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.* b) Maintain consistency in style and tone.*
5th GradeL.5.3 Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. a) Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style. b) Compare and contrast the varieties of English (e.g., dialects, registers) used in stories, dramas, or poems.
4th GradeL.4.3 Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. a) Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.* b) Choose punctuation for effect.* c) Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion).
3rd GradeL.3.3 Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. a) Choose words and phrases for effect.* b) Recognize and observe differences between the conventions of spoken and written standard English.
2nd GradeL.2.3 Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. a) Compare formal and informal uses of English.
Anchor NotesTo build a foundation for college and career readiness in language, students must gain control over many conventions of standard English grammar, usage, and mechanics as well as learn other ways to use language to convey meaning effectively. They must also be able to determine or clarify the meaning of grade-appropriate words encountered through listening, reading, and media use; come to appreciate that words have nonliteral meanings, shadings of meaning, and relationships to other words; and expand their vocabulary in the course of studying content. The inclusion of Language standards in their own strand should not be taken as an indication that skills related to conventions, effective language use, and vocabulary are unimportant to reading, writing, speaking, and listening; indeed, they are inseparable from such contexts.

Note 1: L.3 begins in 2nd grade.
Note 2: Standards marked with an asterisk (*) in Language standards 1–3, are particularly likely to require continued attention in higher grades as they are applied to increasingly sophisticated writing and speaking. See the Language Progressive Skills chart for more information.
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