L.1: Conventions of Standard English

Anchor StandardCCRA.L.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
11th-12th GradesL.11-12.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a) Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change over time, and is sometimes contested. b) Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references (e.g., Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage, Garner’s Modern American Usage) as needed.
9th-10th GradesL.9-10.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a) Use parallel structure.* b) Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.
8th GradeL.8.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a) Explain the function of verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences. b) Form and use verbs in the active and passive voice. c) Form and use verbs in the indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional, and subjunctive mood. d) Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood.*
7th GradeL.7.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a) Explain the function of phrases and clauses in general and their function in specific sentences. b) Choose among simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences to signal differing relationships among ideas. c) Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers.*
6th GradeL.6.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a) Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, possessive). b) Use intensive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves). c) Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.* d) Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents).* e) Recognize variations from standard English in their own and others' writing and speaking, and identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.*
5th GradeL.5.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a) Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences. b) Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked) verb tenses. c) Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions. d) Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.* e) Use correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or, neither/nor).
4th GradeL.4.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a) Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why). b) Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses. c) Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions. d) Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag). e) Form and use prepositional phrases. f) Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.* g) Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).*
3rd GradeL.3.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a) Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences. b) Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns. c) Use abstract nouns (e.g., childhood). d) Form and use regular and irregular verbs. e) Form and use the simple (e.g., I walked; I walk; I will walk) verb tenses. f) Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement.* g) Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified. h) Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions. i) Produce simple, compound, and complex sentences.
2nd GradeL.2.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a) Use collective nouns (e.g., group). b) Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish). c) Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves). d) Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told). e) Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified. f) Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (e.g., The boy watched the movie; The little boy watched the movie; The action movie was watched by the little boy).
1st GradeL.1.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a) Print all upper- and lowercase letters. b) Use common, proper, and possessive nouns. c) Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences (e.g., He hops; We hop). d) Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns (e.g., I, me, my; they, them, their, anyone, everything). e) Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future (e.g., Yesterday I walked home; Today I walk home; Tomorrow I will walk home). f) Use frequently occurring adjectives. g) Use frequently occurring conjunctions (e.g., and, but, or, so, because). h) Use determiners (e.g., articles, demonstratives). i) Use frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., during, beyond, toward). j) Produce and expand complete simple and compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences in response to prompts.
KindergartenL.K.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a) Print many upper- and lowercase letters. b) Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs. c) Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes). d) Understand and use question words (interrogatives) (e.g., who, what, where, when, why, how). e) Use the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, of, by, with). f) Produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities.
Anchor NotesTo build a foundation for college and career readiness in language, students must gain control over many conventions of standard English grammar, usage, and mechanics as well as learn other ways to use language to convey meaning effectively. They must also be able to determine or clarify the meaning of grade-appropriate words encountered through listening, reading, and media use; come to appreciate that words have nonliteral meanings, shadings of meaning, and relationships to other words; and expand their vocabulary in the course of studying content. The inclusion of Language standards in their own strand should not be taken as an indication that skills related to conventions, effective language use, and vocabulary are unimportant to reading, writing, speaking, and listening; indeed, they are inseparable from such contexts.

Note: Standards marked with an asterisk (*) in Language standards 1–3, are particularly likely to require continued attention in higher grades as they are applied to increasingly sophisticated writing and speaking. See the Language Progressive Skills chart for more information.
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